## Process overview

When adding a new metric, the process is:

• Consider the question you are trying to answer with this data, and choose the metric type and parameters to use.
• Add a new entry to metrics.yaml.
• Add code to your project to record into the metric by calling the Glean SDK.

Important: Any new data collection requires documentation and data-review. This is also required for any new metric automatically collected by the Glean SDK.

## Choosing a metric type

The following is a set of questions to ask about the data being collected to help better determine which metric type to use.

### Is it a single measurement?

If the value is true or false, use a boolean metric.

If the value is a string, use a string metric. For example, to record the name of the default search engine.

Beware: string metrics are exceedingly general, and you are probably best served by selecting the most specific metric for the job, since you'll get better error checking and richer analysis tools for free. For example, avoid storing a number in a string metric --- you probably want a counter metric instead.

If you need to store multiple string values in a metric, use a string list metric. For example, you may want to record the list of other Mozilla products installed on the device.

For all of the metric types in this section that measure single values, it is especially important to consider how the lifetime of the value relates to the ping it is being sent in. Since these metrics don't perform any aggregation on the client side, when a ping containing the metric is submitted, it will contain only the "last known" value for the metric, potentially resulting in data loss. There is further discussion of metric lifetimes below.

### Are you measuring user behavior?

For tracking user behavior, it is usually meaningful to know the over of events that lead to the use of a feature. Therefore, for user behavior, an event metric is usually the best choice.

Be aware, however, that events can be particularly expensive to transmit, store and analyze, so should not be used for higher-frequency measurements.

### Are you counting things?

If you want to know how many times something happened, use a counter metric. If you are counting a group of related things, or you don't know what all of the things to count are at build time, use a labeled counter metric.

If you need to know how many times something happened relative to the number of times something else happened, use a rate metric.

If you need to know when the things being counted happened relative to other things, consider using an event.

### Are you measuring time?

If you need to record an absolute time, use a datetime metric. Datetimes are recorded in the user's local time, according to their device's real time clock, along with a timezone offset from UTC. Datetime metrics allow specifying the resolution they are collected at, and to stay lean, they should only be collected at the minimum resolution required to answer your question.

If you need to record how long something takes you have a few options.

If you need to measure the total time spent doing a particular task, look to the timespan metric. Timespan metrics allow specifying the resolution they are collected at, and to stay lean, they should only be collected at the minimum resolution required to answer your question. Note that this metric should only be used to measure time on a single thread. If multiple overlapping timespans are measured for the same metric, an invalid state error is recorded.

If you need to measure the relative occurrences of many timings, use a timing distribution. It builds a histogram of timing measurements, and is safe to record multiple concurrent timespans on different threads.

If you need to know the time between multiple distinct actions that aren't a simple "begin" and "end" pair, consider using an event.

## For how long do you need to collect this data?

Think carefully about how long the metric will be needed, and set the expires parameter to disable the metric at the earliest possible time. This is an important component of Mozilla's lean data practices.

When the metric passes its expiration date (determined at build time), it will automatically stop collecting data.

When a metric's expiration is within in 14 days, emails will be sent from telemetry-alerts@mozilla.com to the notification_emails addresses associated with the metric. At that time, the metric should be removed, which involves removing it from the metrics.yaml file and removing uses of it in the source code. Removing a metric does not affect the availability of data already collected by the pipeline.

If the metric is still needed after its expiration date, it should go back for another round of data review to have its expiration date extended.

Important: Ensure that telemetry alerts are received and are reviewed in a timely manner. Expired metrics don't record any data, extending or removing a metric should be done in time. Consider adding both a group email address and an individual who is responsible for this metric to the notification_emails list.

## When should the Glean SDK automatically clear the measurement?

The lifetime parameter of a metric defines when its value will be cleared. There are three lifetime options available:

##### ping (default)

The metric is cleared each time it is submitted in the ping. This is the most common case, and should be used for metrics that are highly dynamic, such as things computed in response to the user's interaction with the application.

##### application

The metric is related to an application run, and is cleared after the application restarts and any Glean-owned ping, due at startup, is submitted. This should be used for things that are constant during the run of an application, such as the operating system version. In practice, these metrics are generally set during application startup. A common mistake--- using the ping lifetime for these type of metrics---means that they will only be included in the first ping sent during a particular run of the application.

##### user

NOTE: Reach out to the Glean team before using this.

The metric is part of the user's profile and will live as long as the profile lives. This is often not the best choice unless the metric records a value that really needs to be persisted for the full lifetime of the user profile, e.g. an identifier like the client_id, the day the product was first executed. It is rare to use this lifetime outside of some metrics that are built in to the Glean SDK.

While lifetimes are important to understand for all metric types, they are particularly important for the metric types that record single values and don't aggregate on the client (boolean, string, labeled_string, string_list, datetime and uuid), since these metrics will send the "last known" value and missing the earlier values could be a form of unintended data loss.

Let's work through an example to see how these lifetimes play out in practice. Let's suppose we have a user preference, "turbo mode", which defaults to false, but the user can turn it to true at any time. We want to know when this flag is true so we can measure its affect on other metrics in the same ping. In the following diagram, we look at a time period that sends 4 pings across two separate runs of the application. We assume here, that like the Glean SDK's built-in metrics ping, the developer writing the metric isn't in control of when the ping is submitted.

In this diagram, the ping measurement windows are represented as rectangles, but the moment the ping is "submitted" is represented by its right edge. The user changes the "turbo mode" setting from false to true in the first run, and then toggles it again twice in the second run.

• A. Ping lifetime, set on change: The value isn't included in Ping 1, because Glean doesn't know about it yet. It is included in the first ping after being recorded (Ping 2), which causes it to be cleared.

• B. Ping lifetime, set on init and change: The default value is included in Ping 1, and the changed value is included in Ping 2, which causes it to be cleared. It therefore misses Ping 3, but when the application is started, it is recorded again and it is included in Ping 4. However, this causes it to be cleared again and it is not in Ping 5.

• C. Application lifetime, set on change: The value isn't included in Ping 1, because Glean doesn't know about it yet. After the value is changed, it is included in Pings 2 and 3, but then due to application restart it is cleared, so it is not included until the value is manually toggled again.

• D. Application, set on init and change: The default value is included in Ping 1, and the changed value is included in Pings 2 and 3. Even though the application startup causes it to be cleared, it is set again, and all subsequent pings also have the value.

• E. User, set on change: The default value is missing from Ping 1, but since user lifetime metrics aren't cleared unless the user profile is reset (e.g. on Android, when the product is uninstalled), it is included in all subsequent pings.

• F. User, set on init and change: Since user lifetime metrics aren't cleared unless the user profile is reset, it is included in all subsequent pings. This would be true even if the "turbo mode" preference were never changed again.

Note that for all of the metric configurations, the toggle of the preference off and on during Ping 4 is completely missed. If you need to create a ping containing one, and only one, value for this metric, consider using a custom ping to create a ping whose lifetime matches the lifetime of the value.

### What if none of these lifetimes are appropriate?

If the timing at which the metric is sent in the ping needs to closely match the timing of the metrics value, the best option is to use a custom ping to manually control when pings are sent.

This is especially useful when metrics need to be tightly related to one another, for example when you need to measure the distribution of frame paint times when a particular rendering backend is in use. If these metrics were in different pings, with different measurement windows, it is much harder to do that kind of reasoning with much certainty.

## What should this new metric be called?

Metric names have a maximum length of 30 characters.

### Reuse names from other applications

There's a lot of value using the same name for analogous metrics collected across different products. For example, BigQuery makes it simple to join columns with the same name across multiple tables. Therefore, we encourage you to investigate if a similar metric is already being collected by another product. If it is, there may be an opportunity for code reuse across these products, and if all the projects are using the Glean SDK, it's easy for libraries to send their own metrics. If sharing the code doesn't make sense, at a minimum we recommend using the same metric name for similar actions and concepts whenever possible.

### Make names unique within an application

Metric identifiers (the combination of a metric's category and name) must be unique across all metrics that are sent by a single application. This includes not only the metrics defined in the app's metrics.yaml, but the metrics.yaml of any Glean SDK-using library that the application uses, including the Glean SDK itself. Therefore, care should be taken to name things specifically enough so as to avoid namespace collisions. In practice, this generally involves thinking carefully about the category of the metric, more than the name.

Note: Duplicate metric identifiers are not currently detected at build time. See bug 1578383 for progress on that. However, the probe_scraper process, which runs nightly, will detect duplicate metrics and e-mail the notification_emails associated with the given metrics.

### Be as specific as possible

More broadly, you should choose the names of metrics to be as specific as possible. It is not necessary to put the type of the metric in the category or name, since this information is retained in other ways through the entire end-to-end system.

For example, if defining a set of events related to search, put them in a category called search, rather than just events or search_events. The events word here would be redundant.

## What if none of these metric types is the right fit?

The current set of metrics the Glean SDKs support is based on known common use cases, but new use cases are discovered all the time.

Please reach out to us on #glean:mozilla.org. If you think you need a new metric type, we have a process for that.

## How do I make sure my metric is working?

The Glean SDK has rich support for writing unit tests involving metrics. Writing a good unit test is a large topic, but in general, you should write unit tests for all new telemetry that does the following:

• Performs the operation being measured.

• Asserts that metrics contain the expected data, using the testGetValue API on the metric.

• Where applicable, asserts that no errors are recorded, such as when values are out of range, using the testGetNumRecordedErrors API.

In addition to unit tests, it is good practice to validate the incoming data for the new metric on a pre-release channel to make sure things are working as expected.

## Adding the metric to the metrics.yaml file

The metrics.yaml file defines the metrics your application or library will send. They are organized into categories. The overall organization is:

# Required to indicate this is a metrics.yaml file
\$schema: moz://mozilla.org/schemas/glean/metrics/2-0-0

toolbar:
click:
type: event
description: |
Event to record toolbar clicks.
tags:
- Interaction
- CHANGE-ME@example.com
bugs:
- https://bugzilla.mozilla.org/123456789/
data_reviews:
- http://example.com/path/to/data-review
expires: 2019-06-01  # <-- Update to a date in the future

double_click:
...


Refer to the metrics YAML registry format for a full reference on the metrics.yaml file structure.

## Using the metric from your code

The reference documentation for each metric type goes into detail about using each metric type from your code.

Note that all Glean metrics are write-only. Outside of unit tests, it is impossible to retrieve a value from the Glean SDK's database. While this may seem limiting, this is required to:

• enforce the semantics of certain metric types (e.g. that Counters can only be incremented).
• ensure the lifetime of the metric (when it is cleared or reset) is correctly handled.

### Capitalization

One thing to note is that we try to adhere to the coding conventions of each language wherever possible, so the metric name and category in the metrics.yaml (which is in snake_case) may be changed to some other case convention, such as camelCase, when used from code.

Event extras and labels are never capitalized, no matter the target language.

Category and metric names in the metrics.yaml are in snake_case, but given the Kotlin coding standards defined by ktlint, these identifiers must be camelCase in Kotlin. For example, the metric defined in the metrics.yaml as:

views:
...


is accessible in Kotlin as:

import org.mozilla.yourApplication.GleanMetrics.Views


Category and metric names in the metrics.yaml are in snake_case, but given the Swift coding standards defined by swiftlint, these identifiers must be camelCase in Swift. For example, the metric defined in the metrics.yaml as:

views:
...


is accessible in Kotlin as:

GleanMetrics.Views.loginOpened...


Category and metric names in the metrics.yaml are in snake_case, which matches the PEP8 standard, so no translation is needed for Python.

Given the Rust coding standards defined by clippy, identifiers should all be snake_case. This includes category names which in the metrics.yaml are dotted.snake_case:

compound.category:
metric_name:
...


In Rust this becomes:

use firefox_on_glean::metrics;

metrics::compound_category::metric_name...


JavaScript identifiers are customarily camelCase. This requires transforming a metric defined in the metrics.yaml as:

compound.category:
metric_name:
...


to a form useful in JS as:

import * as compoundCategory from "./path/to/generated/files/compoundCategory.js";

compoundCategory.metricName...


Firefox Desktop has Coding Style Guidelines for both C++ and JS. This results in, for a metric defined in the metrics.yaml as:

compound.category:
metric_name:
...


an identifier that looks like:

C++

#include "mozilla/glean/GleanMetrics.h"

mozilla::glean::compound_category::metric_name...


JavaScript

Glean.compoundCategory.metricName...